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Handle design, control panel design, hand tool design. Work place design, design of controls. Site news. Module 1. Introduction about design and developmen Module 2. Study of special design features of trac Module 3. Study of basic design parameters for tra Module 4. Selection of different mechanical power Module 5. Study of tractor steering and suspension Module 6. Design and analysis of tractor hitch sys Module 7. Design of a tractor hydraulic system.
Module 8. Study of electrical, electronics and gui Module 9. Ergonomics, controls and safety features Lesson Importance of ergonomics in tractor and Human engineering in tractor design. Tractor noise, vibration and other envi Safety features including ROPS in tractor. Module 9 Quiz. Module Tractor testing. Importance of ergonomics in tractor and agricultural machinery design. Introduction Human engineering or ergonomics deals with the aspect of man-machine system which means engineering the product or machine to fit the operator. Ergonomics in Tractor and agricultural machinery design The ergonomic aspects during application in agricultural machinery are of great importance as the operator has to operate the machine in field.
Physiological factors for measurements Physical activities stimulate certain physiological responses in human beings. Stresses and strains in ergonomic studies 5. Heart rate Heart rate HR is the most reliable dependent parameter in ergonomic studies. Respiration rate The respiration is another basic variable in work physiology as it is linearly related to the workload.
Discomfort rating Body posture is one of the major factor which causes muscular fatigue and discomfort in the body. Anthropometry Anthropometry is the technology of measuring various human physical traits, such as body dimensions of workers and their strength. Dimension Definition Usefulness 1. Weight It is measured on a calibrated weighing scale.
Stature The vertical distance from standing surface to the top of the head. Vertical reach The vertical distance from standing surface to the height of middle finger when arm hand and fingers are extended vertically. Workplace layout, design of controls 4. Eye height The vertical distance from standing surface to the inner corner of the eye.
Design of controls and displays 5. Knee height The vertical distance from standing surface to the midpoint of knee cap. Arm reach from wall The distance from the wall to the tip of middle finger measured with subject shoulder against the wall, his hand and arm extended forward. Sitting height The height, from the sitting surface, to the top of the head. Sitting eye height The height from the sitting surface to the external canthus. Knee height sitting The height from the footrest surface of the musculature just above the knee.
Hand length The distance from the base of the hand to the top of the middle finger measured along the long axis of the hand. Skip Navigation. Design of a tractor hydraulic system Module 8. Human engineering in tractor design Lesson In contrast, the equivalent range for Italian males is mm to mm. Elbow height is an important dimension for establishing the height for working surfaces and a difference of approximately 40 mm can make a substantial difference. With some other countries the differences can be even more pronounced e. Another example, although a diminishing problem — is the design of Personal Protective equipment PPE , often designed by men with men in mind, that has proved too large for many women.
Where good fit is essential for effective protection e. Even where a good fit is less important for effective protection a poor fit can have an adverse effect on comfort, which may reduce the willingness of workers to wear them.
Simply scaling the design down does not always solve the problem — because women often have different facial shapes, not just sizes. The increased mobility of people between countries and ongoing trends to increase the employment of women means that such factors are of growing relevance. The peak of the curve represents the average or mean value and also, if genuinely symmetrical, the median and mode — the central and commonest - values with the values to either side of this peak featuring less frequently amongst the population the dimension is drawn from.
It will be seen from this that, the further you get away from the centre, the less frequently such values appear in the population under scrutiny. As a start point for many designs, the variability within the design population of the size length, width, etc. Failure to adopt such an approach can lead to safety and health problems. For example, placing a safety guard at a distance away from a cutting tool equivalent to average arm length would mean that half the workforce could still reach the tool over the guard — perhaps to clean it — with obvious potential injury concerns.
As an example of the mis-use of a static anthropometric dimension, an industrial plant was seen where control valves on a pipe were placed at a height of mm. Enquiries indicated that the design engineers had used data that included average vertical reach. Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device.
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(5) Engineering Anthropometry | Anthropometry | Skeleton
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Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Engineering anthropometry 1. It represents the quantitative aspect. A wide system of theories and practice is devoted to defining methods and variables to relate the aims in the different fields of application. It is used to improve the human fit in the workplace or to determine problems existing between facilities or equipment and the employees using them.
Anthropometric variables An anthropometric variable is a measurable characteristic of the body that can be defined, standardized and referred to a unit of measurement. Linear variables are generally defined by landmarks that can be precisely traced on the body. Landmarks are generally of two types: skeletal-anatomical, which maybe found and traced by feeling bony prominences through the skin, and virtual landmarks that are simply found as maximum or minimum distances using the branches of a caliper.
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Anthropometric variables have both genetic and environmental components and may be used to define individual and population variability. The choice of variables must be related to the specific research purpose and standardized with other research in the same field, as the number of variables described in the literature is extremely large, up to 2, having been described for the human body. Anthropometric variables are mainly linear measures, such as heights, distances from landmarks with subject standing or seated in standardized posture; diameters, such as distances between bilateral landmarks; lengths, such as distances between two different landmarks; curved measures, namely arcs, such as distances on the body surface between two landmarks; and girths, such as closed all-around measures on body surfaces, generally positioned at at least one landmark or at a defined height.